Our bibliography and references are here for readers and site visitors to see the documentation of our research. We've used the following as sources for writing pages, when and which require substantive information.
“Acaulescent.” (2023) Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. merriam-webster.com/dictionary/acaulescent.
Africanized Honey Bees on the Move Lesson Plans (n.d.) Parts of flowers. Information sheet 9. University of Arizona. Retrieved from cals.arizona.edu/pubs/insects/ahb/inf9.html
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (2016). Fifth Edition. Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Arizona Board of Regents (2012). Washingtonia filifera. Campus Arboretum, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. The University of Arizona. Retrieved from apps.cals.arizona.edu/arboretum/taxon.aspx?id=293
Arnold, D. (2015, Oct. 23). Curatorial interpretation: Palm column of Sahure. The Met. Retrieved from metmuseum.org/about-the-met/collection-areas/egyptian-art/object-pages/sahure-column
Barrow, S.C. (1998) Phoenix dactylifera Comments and Curiosities. Referenced from Tickholm & Drar, 195. Retrieved from palmpedia.net/wiki/Phoenix_dactylifera
Beaches & Parking (n.d.). Parking at Treasure Island. Recreation. City of Treasure Island, Florida. Retrieved from mytreasureisland.org/residents/departments/recreation/beaches.php
Bodley, J.H. & Benson, F. C. (1980). Stilt-Root Walking by an Iriateoid palm in the Peruvian Amazon. Biotropica, 12(1), 67–71. Retrieved from doi.org/10.2307/2387775
Bergman, P. (2022, Aug. 10). Desert palm trees. Palm Tree Help & Advice. Jungle Music Palms & Cycads. Retrieved from junglemusic.net/palmadvice/palmtrees-desertpalms.htm
Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia (2006, Feb. 9). Palm summary. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from britannica.com/summary/palm-tree
Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, September 17). Oil palm. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from britannica.com/plant/oil-palm
Broschat, T.K. & Meerow, A.W. (2000). Ornamental palm horticulture. University Press of Florida.
Broschat, T.K. (2019/02/28) Palm morphology and anatomy. Retrieved from edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/EP473
Chase, H. (1990). The Date Palm: Pillar of Society. Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1989: Staples. ISBN 9780907325444.
Combiths, S. (2022, Sept. 28) How to clean artificial plants. Apartment Therapy. Retrieved from apartmenttherapy.com/how-to-clean-artificial-plants-36714699
Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and South African National Biodiversity Institute (2022). African Plant Database. (version 4.0.0). Pretoria.
Daoud, A.O. (June 2013). Replacement of steel re-bars by chemically treated palm fronds as concrete members reinforcement. Dissertation for the Requirements for the Bachelor Degree in Civil Engineering from the The British University in Egypt.
Davidovich, J. (2011, December 19). The problem with palm trees. City Lab/Culture. Bloomberg. Retrieved from bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-12-19/the-problem-with-palm-trees
Dewees, M.J. (2022). Designing with palms. Timber Press Inc.
Dictionary.com, Thesaurus.com (2023). monoecious. 2023 Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved from dictionary.com/browse/monoecious
Green Team (2020). Effects of replacing cement by date palm trees wastes on concrete performance. Prototypes for Humanity. Retrieved from prototypesforhumanity.com/project/effects-of-replacing-cement-by-date-palm-trees-wastes-on-concrete-performance-2/
Federal Register (2019, June 25). Plant Pest Regulations. The Daily Journal of the United States Government. National Archives. Retrieved from federalregister.gov/documents/2019/06/25/2019-13246/plant-pest-regulations
Francko, D.A. (2003). Palms Won't Grow Here and other myths: Warm climate plants for cooler areas. Timber Press Inc.
Gardening Help (n.d.) Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved from missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx
Gauding, M. (2009). The Signs and Symbols Bible: The Definitive Guide to Mysterious Markings. ISBN 9781402770043.
Gibbons, M. (1993). Identifying Palms: The new compact study guide and identifier. Quintet Publishing Limited/Chartwell Books.
Harms, B. (n.d.). Palmate & costapalmate; Hastula. University of Texas. Retrieved from w3.biosci.utexas.edu/prc/DigFlora/Waller/costapalmate.html
Hassett, M. (1911). Palm in Christian Symbolism. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved December 18, 2022 from newadvent.org/cathen/11432a.htm
Haynes, C. (2009, Feb. 4). Botanical Terminology: Flowers, Houses and Sexual Reproduction. Horticulture and Home Pest News. Extension and Outreach. Iowa State University.
Henn, A. & Smith, E.M.L. (2022). Cold Injury to Palms. Mississippi State University Extension. Agricultural Communications. Retrieved from extension.msstate.edu/publications/publications/cold-injury-palms
History (2022, Dec. 26). The history of Palm Springs. Palm Springs .Com. Retrieved from palmsprings.com/history/
Hood, M. (2023, March 20). Colony collapse disorder. Brittanica Biology. Retrieved from britannica.com/science/colony-collapse-disorder
Humanities›Geography (2019, May 28). Geography of the Gulf of Mexico states. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from thoughtco.com/geography-of-gulf-of-mexico-states-1435750
IP Ratings & Standards Explained (2014-2023). What is an IP rating? Ingress protection. Rainford Solutions. Retrieved from rainfordsolutions.com/products/ingress-protection-ip-rated-enclosures/ip-enclosure-ratings-standards-explained
Jewish Virtual Library (2008). Israel environment and nature: Palm. Category: Environment & Nature. A Project of Alice. Retrieved from jewishvirtuallibrary.org/palm
Jones, D.L. (1995). Palms throughout the world. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kiger, P.J. (2023, July 25). 8 Facts about Ancient Egypt’s hieroglyphic writing. History.com News. Retrieved from history.com/news/hieroglyphics-facts-ancient-egypt
Leaser, D. (2007). Growing palm trees in Hawai'i and other tropical climates. Mutual Publishing LLC.
Light in the Outdoor Area (n.d.) Lighting trees perfectly. ERCO. Ludenscheid Germany: ERCO GmbH
Mace, M. (2020, Aug. 26). How cold was the Ice Age? Researchers now know. University Communications. News. The University of Arizona. Retrieved from news.arizona.edu /story/how-cold-was-ice-age-researchers-now-know
Meerow, A.W. (2002). Betrock's guide to landscape palms. 8th Edition. Betrock Information Systems.
Meerow, A.W. (2016). Common & some exotic Palms of the Southeast & Texas. Earth Sky + Water LLC, EarthSkyWater.net
Meerow,A.W. & Broschat,T.K. (n.d.). Palm seed germination. IFAS Extension. University of Florida
Mildord, S. (1989). The Kids' Nature Book. Williamson Publishing.
Mitchell, S. (2021). How to decorate a palm tree themed living room. Home Guides. SFGate. Hearst. Retrieved from homeguides.sfgate.com/decorate-palm-tree-themed-living-room-30195.html
Montano, M. (2008). The Big-Ass Book of Crafts. Simon Spotlight Entertainment of Simon & Shuster Inc.
Moore, H. E. & Uhl, N. W. (2019, March 19). Palm. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from britannica.com/plant/palm-tree
Ogletree, A. (2022, Oct. 25) How to decorate a palm tree for Christmas: 4 steps to light up your landscape. Angi Solution Center. Home Exteriors: Angi.com
Oregon Coast Beach Connection (n.d.) Sunset Beach, between Warrenton and Gearhart, N. Oregon Coast. Beach Connection. Retrieved from beachconnection.net/news/vt_warr_sunset_beach.php
Palm Enclyclopedia (2022). Beccariophoenix alfredii. Palmpedia. Retrieved from palmpedia.net/wiki/Beccariophoenix_alfredii
Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary (7/1/1948 to 12/31/1998). Phoenix City, Arizona. Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved from wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?azphoc
Poison Control Center Team (nd). Plants That Irritate: Mouth irritants. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Retrieved from chop.edu/centers-programs/poison-control-center/plants-irritate#
Radcliff, M. (2021). How to decorate a home in a tropical theme. Home Guides. SFGate. Hearst. Retrieved from homeguides.sfgate.com/decorate-home-tropical-theme-59798.html
Research W3 Tropicos (1995-2022). Climatic Hardiness Zones. Projects. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved from mobot.org/MOBOT/research/russia/climatic.shtml
Resources (2018). Database: Biodiversity for food and nutrition. Retrieved from b4fn.org/resources/species-database/
Riffle, R.L. (2008). Timber Press Pocket Guide to Palms. Timber Press Inc.
Riffle, R.L. & Craft, P. (2003). An encyclopedia of cultivated palms. Timber Press Inc.
Rustomji, N. (2009). The Garden and the Fire: Heaven and Hell in Islamic Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231140850.
Sczesny, M. (2022, Jan. 18). 'Private beach, no trespassing' markers anger beachgoers on Palm Beach. Palm Beach News. WPTV 5, West Palm Beach. Retrieved from wptv.com/news/region-c-palm-beach-county/palm-beach/private-beach-no-trespassing-markers-anger-beachgoers-on-palm-beach
St.Pete/Clearwater (2023). Overview/details. Sunset Beach. Retrieved from visitstpeteclearwater.com/profile/sunset-beach/139934
Sunset Beach (n.d.). Sunset Beach in Huntington Beach, California. California Beaches. Retrieved from californiabeaches.com/beach/sunset-beach/
Textile Articles (28 July, 2020). Raffia fibre: The heart of high fashion. Textile Value Chain. Retrieved from textilevaluechain.in/news-insights/raffia-fibre-the-heart-of-high-fashion/
Todaro, P. (2019). Why-do-palms-on-beaches-grow-diagonally. quora.com
USDA, Agricultural Research Service (2022) National plant germplasm system. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN Taxonomy). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.Retrieved from npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=415079
USDA Forest Service (n.d.) The birds and the bees. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from fs.usda.gov/managing-land/wildflowers/pollinators/birds-bees
WebMD (2005 - 2023). Betal Nut Overview. Betel Nut - Uses, Side Effects, and More. Retrieved from webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-995/betel-nut.